SP 2010: Developing for performance Part 5 – Disposal patterns and tools

Author: Tobias Zimmergren
http://www.zimmergren.net | http://www.tozit.com | @zimmergren


SharePoint 2010 developing for performance article series:
In this series of articles I will briefly introduce you to some key concepts when it comes to developing for performance in our SharePoint 2010 applications.

Related articles in this article series

Part 1 – SP 2010: Developing for performance Part 1 – Developer Dashboard
Part 2 – SP 2010: Developing for performance Part 2 – SPMonitoredScope
Part 3 – SP 2010: Developing for performance Part 3 – Caching in SharePoint 2010
Part 4 – SP 2010: Developing for performance Part 4 – Logging
Part 5 – SP 2010: Developing for performance Part 5 – Disposal patterns and tools
Part 6 – SP 2010: Developing for performance Part 6 – CSS Sprites
Part 7 – SP 2010: Developing for performance Part 7 – Crunching those scripts
Part 8 – SP 2010: Developing for performance Part 8 – Control that ViewState

Part 5 (this article):
In SharePoint 2010 (and 2007 for that matter) there’s a few objects in the API’s that requires your special attention in order to behave properly. If you do not consider the disposal patterns and rules set forth, your application may very well suffer performance issues. In this article I will briefly touch upon the subject of disposing your SharePoint objects and foremost enlighten how important it is to dispose the objects!

What does Disposing mean and why is it important?

When I deliver training, there’s always the question about why disposing is important. In SharePoint there’s valid grounds for saying it’s important to dispose, more than just saying "It’s best practice". If you don’t properly dispose some of your objects in SharePoint you’ll quickly face performance issues since those objects don’t get caught and disposed by the Garbage Collector in a timely fashion as most other objects do in .NET.

What is a "dispose pattern"?


The Dispose Pattern is the approach used to properly dispose and clean up the resources you’re using in your projects when programming in .NET (or other runtimes). Normally there’s an automatic garbage collector doing the cleanup for you – but in certain scenarios (like the ones described later in this article), you’ll need to manually dispose your objects.


In Microsoft .NET when an object inherits from the IDisposable interface it means that the Garbage Collector will call the .Dispose() method of that object when it’s no longer used. The Dispose() method in turn calls the Close() method which generally means you should call the .Dispose() method instead of the .Close() method to make sure the objects are properly disposed. Keep reading to see why this is so important!

Why is manual disposal really, really important in SharePoint?

Some of the objects you’re working with heavily in the SharePoint object model (for example the SPWeb and SPSite) are mostly using unmanaged code – and since the managed part of the code is quite small it doesn’t leave a large memory footprint and hence the Garbage Collector don’t necessarily dispose of that object – which means that it’ll be occupying server resources for a longer time if you don’t manually dispose of those objects.

What happens if I forget to dispose?

There’s several things that you may notice in your applications if you’ve implemented a solution that are not properly disposing their objects.

  • Memory consumption.
    • The consumption of your server memory may peak and the worker process (w3wp.exe) may consume a lot more memory than it would normally have to consume.
  • Application Pool recycling.
    • If the worker process consumes too much memory, it’ll recycle the application pool.
    • If you’ve got an underperforming application causing overwhelming  memory consumption the Application Pool will recycle more often.
  • Performance issues!
    • Slow response times
    • Timeouts
    • Unexpected errors
  • Headache
    • User headache
    • Support headache
    • Admin headache
    • Developer headache (ultimately)

In other words: Make sure you’re properly disposing your objects at all times!

Sandboxed Solutions and Resource Usage – Think about dispose patterns!

If you’re developing applications for the Sandbox in SharePoint 2010 (User Code Solutions / Sandboxed Solutions) you may be aware of the resource point system that will limit your application’s usage of resources on the server. This is a great way to keep the admins calm and developers keen on producing quality code.

A thing to note is that if you don’t correctly dispose your objects they will consume more server resources which in turn would lead to the resource points increasing. If the resource usage reaches the limits set forth by SharePoint for a sandboxed solution – it’ll deactivate it.

In other words: Make sure you’re properly disposing your objects at all times!

Let’s visualize the performance problem!

Okay, so now that I’ve got your attention – let’s do a quick performance test to see how the process handles the memory if we create the same application with and without disposal patterns in SharePoint.

I created a simple application that will work heavily with the SPSite and SPWeb objects on one of my servers. After hooking up a performance counter and monitoring the memory consumption repeatedly during a few hours of repeated execution it was easy to line down a conclusion which you can see in the chart below.

Performance summary

The following chart displays the same application with and without implementing the dispose patterns in a SharePoint 2010 execution environment.

Zimmergren Sample Memory Consumption Chart

You can see by the results of the two applications above that when we’re properly disposing our objects there’s a notable difference in the performance in our application – and hence the overall server resource usage.

In other words: Make sure you’re properly disposing your objects at all times!

How to: Implement dispose patterns in your SharePoint code

At this point we know it’s very important to dispose our objects in SharePoint – let’s take a look at how we can do that properly and what tooling and guidelines we can use to help us in this important quest!

Approach 1 – Manually calling Dispose()

The absolutely most general and simple approach to dispose your objects is to simply call the .Dispose() method of your objects:

 SPSite  site = new  SPSite ("http://zimmergren/");
 // Do stuff 

Approach 2 – Encapsulating the statement in a using() block

A more common approach is to encapsulate the code in a using-block where the object will be automatically disposed when we’re reaching the end of our block.

     using (SPSite  site = new  SPSite ("http://zimmergren"));
         // Do stuff 

Approach 3 – Utilize a try/finally block

Whenever you’re expecting to catch an exception or somehow might stumble onto exceptions and need to handle them – a better approach for disposing is to create a try-finally block and dispose the object in the finally-block.

Sample 1: Without exception handling

     SPSite  site = null ;
         site = new  SPSite ("http://zimmergren");
         // do stuff 
         if (site!=null ) site.Dispose(); 

Sample 2: With exception handling

     SPSite  site = null ;
         site = new  SPSite ("http://zimmergren");
         // do stuff 
     catch (Exception  ex)
         // Handle the exception 
         // Possibly send it to the logs 
         if (site!=null ) site.Dispose();

SharePoint 2010 Logging information: http://zimmergren.net/archive/2011/01/17/sp-2010-developing-for-performance-part-4-logging.aspx

Approach 4 – A mix of the aforementioned approaches

In some scenarios it might be a necessity to mix the aforementioned methods for disposing.

     using (SPSite  site = new  SPSite ("http://zimmergren"))
         foreach (SPSite  oSite in  site.WebApplication.Sites)
                 // Do stuff 
             catch (Exception  ex)
                 // Log and handle exceptions 
                 if (oSite!=null ) oSite.Dispose();

Using SPDisposeCheck.exe to help us check for issues

It’s one thing to be pro-active and think about the dispose patterns when you’re developing your applications – but sometimes you can’t cope for every scenario in your complex code. Don’t worry though – you’ve got one of my best friends to help you out with that – the SPDisposeCheck.exe tool that Microsoft released to check for disposal problems.

Download and install it

There’s a new version of the popular dispose-check tool for SharePoint called SPDisposeCheck. You can find it here: http://code.msdn.microsoft.com/SPDisposeCheck

Grab your copy of the tool and hang on tight for the ride!

Configure it

When you’ve installed the tool, you can see a new menu option in the "Tools" menu:


Clicking the "SharePoint Dispose Check" menu item will bring up the SPDisposeCheck configuration menu like this:


In this dialog you can configure how the tool should behave, and if it should execute after each build. What’s even cooler is you can choose how to treat the problems.

When you’re building your Visual Studio project, the SPDisposeCheck will perform a post-build command (if you’ve ticked the Execute After Build checkbox) – and you’ll see the output directly in your Error-window:


Always have this tool installed, and every now and then run the SPDisposeCheck to make sure your code is properly disposing your objects. Otherwise it’ll warn you like in the picture above :-)

False positives

When it comes to checking for dispose problems or leaks with this tool, it can sometimes give you something you’d refer to as "a false positive". What that generally means is that although the tool might report a problem, it really isn’t.

Ignoring reports

Sometimes with the SPDisposeCheck tool you’ll get quite a bunch of "false positives" reported, or for whatever other reason you’d like to ignore certain error messages from the SPDisposeCheck tool – you can do that by implementing the SPDisposeCheckIgnore attribute (available as source code in the SPDisposeCheck installation folder).

The following code snippet is taken from the "SPDisposeCheckIgnoreAttribute.cs" file in the SPDisposeCheck installation folder. Add this code to your project (you can change the namespace..):

 using  System;
 namespace  Zimmergren.SP2010.DisposePatterns
     public  enum  SPDisposeCheckID 
         // SPDisposeCheckIDs. 
         SPDisposeCheckID_000 = 0,  
         SPDisposeCheckID_100 = 100,
         SPDisposeCheckID_110 = 110,
         SPDisposeCheckID_120 = 120,
         SPDisposeCheckID_130 = 130,
         SPDisposeCheckID_140 = 140,
         SPDisposeCheckID_150 = 150,
         SPDisposeCheckID_160 = 160,
         SPDisposeCheckID_170 = 170,
         SPDisposeCheckID_180 = 180,
         SPDisposeCheckID_190 = 190,
         SPDisposeCheckID_200 = 200,
         SPDisposeCheckID_210 = 210,
         SPDisposeCheckID_220 = 220,
         SPDisposeCheckID_230 = 230,
         SPDisposeCheckID_240 = 240,
         SPDisposeCheckID_300 = 300,
         SPDisposeCheckID_310 = 310,
         SPDisposeCheckID_320 = 320,
         SPDisposeCheckID_400 = 400,
         SPDisposeCheckID_500 = 500,
         SPDisposeCheckID_999 = 999 
     [AttributeUsage (AttributeTargets .Method | AttributeTargets .Assembly, 
         Inherited = false , AllowMultiple = true )]
     public  class  SPDisposeCheckIgnore  : Attribute 
         public  SPDisposeCheckIgnore(SPDisposeCheckID  Id, string  Reason)
             _id = Id;
             _reason = Reason;
         protected  SPDisposeCheckID  _id;
         protected  string  _reason;
         public  SPDisposeCheckID  Id
             get  { return  _id; }
             set  { _id = Id; }
         public  string  Reason
             get  { return  _reason; }
             set  { _reason = Reason; }

Once you’ve done that, you can use the attribute on your methods and assemblies to tell them to ignore that specific item.

Example usage of the SPDisposeCheckIgnore attribute:

         [SPDisposeCheckIgnore (SPDisposeCheckID .SPDisposeCheckID_110, 
             "False Positive, nothing to see here, move along!" )]
         private  static  void  MyAwesomeMethod()
             // Your method code with false positives 

What if I’m an awesome coder already?

Too many times have I encountered problems in projects due to not properly checking for memory leaks.

Better safe than sorry. That’s all I’m going to say about that :-)

Summary & Links

What we’ve learned from this article is that you should always keep in mind how you handle your objects in your code – and especially when it comes to the SharePoint objects that are invoking unmanaged code like the SPWeb and SPSite objects (to name two common ones).

Make sure you’ve downloaded the latest version of the SPDisposeCheck tool to get the aforementioned fancy integration into Visual Studio 2010. It’s pretty awesome indeed!

Links / Resources


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Tobias Zimmergren

Product Owner, Cloud Offerings at Rencore GmbH
Tobias Zimmergren delivers high-quality articles about business and technology around the Microsoft scene.

Tobias focuses on advisory and consultancy for the Office 365 and SharePoint offerings from Microsoft.
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  • Balajircs

    Good Article. Thanks for sharing

    • http://www.zimmergren.net/ Tobias Zimmergren

      Thank you for the comment, I’m glad you enjoyed it.

  • Rroman81

    Good article. The challenge that i have is that i always use the SPSite/SPWeb from the SPContext and thus should be avoiding disposing them. The tool will report this as false positive. However, if I use AllWebs, then i should be disposing the SPWeb objects then. In such patterns, it’s challenging to run the tool. Do you have any best practice that you use to avoid that issue?

    • http://www.zimmergren.net/ Tobias Zimmergren

      Hi Rroman81,
      Thank you for your comment.

      As mentioned in the article, the tool does sometimes report false positives and that’s where the Ignore-attribute can come in handy. We still need to understand disposal patterns and what objects in SharePoint needs to be disposed, the tools just help us along the way. When you encounter a false positive, just add the ignore-attribute to that call as described in the article. Unfortunately this is still a manual procedure.


  • ahchien

    Thanks for the awesome article =)

    • http://www.zimmergren.net/ Tobias Zimmergren

      Thank you for readin Achien :-)

  • Audun

    thanks for an informative article. Can you relaborate why one should not use using() when one needs to include exception handling?

    • http://www.zimmergren.net/ Tobias Zimmergren

      Hi Audun,

      My pleasure, thank you for reading.

      There’s tons of approaches for exception handling and the samples in the article was just a few.
      You can use using-statements if you prefer. But if you don’t for whatever reason, just make sure to check if the object is disposed or not in the finally-clause.

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  • Mykle

    Hi ! Thank you for this article ! But I noticed in my configuration (which is maybe wrong) that I have to keep the SPDisposeCheck namespace, otherwise it won’t work. For information, the current version of the exe is 14.0.4762.1000.

    I found this in the following StackOverflow post (which mentions you btw ^^):

    Hope that this can help other folks…!

    Keep going Tobias !

    • http://www.zimmergren.net/ Tobias Zimmergren

      Hi Mykle,

      Thanks for the information.
      I haven’t been using the SPDisposeCheck tool for quite some time now to be honest, http://www.spcaf.com does a better job in overall performance and stability analysis.